Naujoji Vilnia (Polish: Nowa Wilejka) is a neighborhood in eastern Vilnius, Lithuania situated along the banks of the Vilnia River. It has eldership status. According to the 2011 census, the municipality has a population of 31,933.
New Vileika started as a separate town in the second half of the 19th century when the Warsaw – Saint Petersburg Railway was built. It grew as a narrow strip along the rails. Then another major Libau–Romny Railway line connecting Vilnius with Minsk was built. In 1911, Church of St. Casimir was built. Before Vilnius joined Poland in 1922 by a decree of the League of Nations, it had a number of small manufacturing shops including wood products, yeast, scythes, knives, paper and knitting mills.
During mass deportations to Siberia in June 1941, some 30,000 deportees passed through the Naujoji Vilnia railway station. After World War II, former shops were nationalized by the Soviet authorities and converted into large factories for machine tools, agricultural equipment and other factories. In 1957 it was incorporated into Vilnius city.
In May 1991, local community leaders in theethnically-mixed Vilnius Region district outside Vilnius unilaterallyproclaimed the establishment of Polish National-Territorial Region, completewith its own flag, national anthem, and national bank and placed the capital atNaujoji Vilnia. In August the same year Lithuanian authorities cracked down onthis initiative on the grounds that Polish leaders in the area had supportedthe failed August Putsch in Moscow.